Abstract
YangMills theories are a very fruitful concept in quantum field theory. Fundamental interactions and its unifications can be described with YangMills theory. However, gravity is still not modeled in the framework of YangMills theory. It is modeled in terms of the EinsteinHilbert action in the case of semiclassical field theory, but ordinary quantization of the spacetime field fails due to UV divergences. A possible approach to quantum gravity called Egravity theory avoids UVdivergences. Primary, this theory is based on a spacetime discretization and the assignment of a curvature measure to discretized spacetime. This paper shows that this approach is also a special case of YangMills theory.Introduction
The most plausible approach for making a model for fundamental elementary particle interaction is the YangMills theory. In this theoretical framework, a local invariance of a physical action under a gauge group action is assumed. This invariance imposes the existence of a gauge connection that is also called “gauge boson field”. Electromagnetic, electroweak and strong interaction can be described very well in terms of YangMills theory. Electroweak interaction is generated by imposing a gauge group invariance and strong interaction can be obtained if the action functional is invariant under group transformations. The Standard model of particle physics is based on the gauge group . May be a gauge connection in spacetime direction with generator index , the structure constants of the gauge group, the coupling constant and the associated field strength. Then the YangMills Lagrangian density has the form:
The additional Lagrangian density is arising from the measure factor of the quantum path integral and contains the FaddeevPopov ghost fields that are Grassmannian variables. It holds:
However, gravity, also another fundamental
force, cannot be described in terms of YangMills theory. The only wellknown
consistent way for describing gravity is General Relativity, which is a
classical theory of gravity. An open question is whether gravity can be
formulated as a YangMills theory. Several research papers show that there is
existing a relationship between gravity and YangMills theory (Bern, Z. et al.
1998) (Hsu, J.P. 2006).
There are existing theories that quantize gravity, e.g. Loop Quantum Gravity.
The derivation of Loop Quantum Gravity is based on a reformulation of General
Relativity by introducing gauge fields
(Ashtekar,A. 1985). However, Loop Quantum Gravity does not coincide with
YangMills theory, e.g. due to the use of constraint terms and the quantization
in terms of Wilson loops. Another recent approach to quantum gravity is
Egravity theory (Linker, P. 2016). This theory provides a discretization of
spacetime with simplices. Simplices can have two or more simplex corners that
are identified (in mathematical terms: there exists a nontrivial equaliser).
Because of this additional property, a curvature measure can be assigned to
each simplex. General Relativity is rewritten in this discrete form and a path
integral over all possible spacetime geometries is performed.
In this research paper, an alternative derivation of Egravity theory is shown.
At first, spacetime is discretized by finite elements which are the simplices.
Finite element methods are typically used for engineering problems, but are also
applied to quantum field theories (Sopuerta, Carlos F. et al. 2005). Instead of
using assumptions about the discretization of the EinsteinHilbert action, a
YangMills theory with the diffeomorphism operator as the gauge group is worked
out. Also, the field strength tensor, which is different from the smooth fiber
bundle curvature form, is derived. With proper projection of the YangMills
theory to physical states, Egravity theory is recovered.
The Derivation of Egravity theory by YangMills theory
The theory of gravity is assumed to be a gauge theory with respect to the Poincaré group. If General Relativity is transformed locally by the Poincaré group, the action remains the same. Generators of the Poincaré group are local spacetime translations and local Lorentz transformations. Since the translation generators corresponding to a 4vector are operators and not finitedimensional matrices, YangMills theory in the form (1) cannot be applied. The goal is to find a matrixlike gauge group for gravity. The first step to find a proper gauge group is to use a finite element discretization of spacetime. In general, a physical field (can be scalar, spinor, vector or tensor field) on a spacetime point is discretized as follows:
Here, are the field values at simplex corner (or node) and the corresponding form functions that have the value 1 at simplex point and the value 0 elsewhere. These form functions generate a discretized spacetime without selfintersection of simplices. Additionally, if two simplex nodes are identified (a key feature of Egravity theory), the sum in equation (3) runs from to with the number of identified nodes . Denotes the set of all possible form functions that discretize the spacetime and the set of all nodes in the spacetime, one obtains the path integral:
Clearly, the set is quite different from the simplex node equaliser set. However, the path integral (4) can be reduced to Egravity theory by an appropiate gauge group. May the gauge operator acting on a function with the entire spacetime region be defined as follows:
Because the operator (5) modifies the
physical fields globally, the field is a global gauge
transformation. The operator (5) can be turned into a local gauge
transformation by replacing .
For a plausible model of gravity, the invariance of the action under the
modified Poincaré group with group elements
acting on physical
states in 4dimensional spacetime is imposed. This group is called “modified”,
because all elements of the group acting like the convolution operator (5);
these groups are “infinitedimensional matrices”. Moreover it holds , i.e. is an unitary
transformation. Due to linearity of and the invariance
of the action under group
transformations in , the choice of form
functions is arbitrary. If the deformation of simplices by is diffeomorphic,
one can set without loss of generality , i.e. local and
global gauge transformations are the same. This can be easily seen if a differential
operator with respect to is performed: By
chain rule,
and equation (6) is only true if and only
if . Hence, the gauge
connection vanishes in case of any diffeomorphic deformations.
If two or more simplex nodes are identified, one performs a nondiffeomorphic
deformation. The left hand side of equation (6) does not exist in general. By
switching the gauge transformation from a global to a local transformation, one
can generalize the gauge group to a
nondiffeomorphic gauge group. This implies the existence of a nonsmooth (!)
gauge connection .
Gauge group ensures that physical laws are unchanged not only if local diffeomorphic deformations are present as it is the case in General Relativity. Local nondiffeomorphic deformations also let physical laws be the same. Diffeomorphic spacetime deformations of General Relativity can be assumed as a very dilute collection of nondiffeomorphic deformations on Planck scales in average. An important condition for this gauge group is that given the map between form functions for arbitrary , the resulting form function generates also a simplex element.
Clearly, a gauge connection which is not
differentiable, makes not sense in a physical field theory. If on a certain
spacetime point , then is singular, since is necessary only
for nondiffeomorphic deformations. As a consequence, physical states can only
be observed in regions with for all spacetime
directions . Field strengths are not vanishing
necessarily, because derivatives of are not zero in
general even if .
The path integral (4) can be reduced with the assumptions made above.
Introducing a parameter , where denotes the index
of the topological simplex structure (i.e. it denotes which nodes are
identified). This parameter runs over all different states of a simplex with
same topology and therefore it is called the “diffeomorphic deformation
parameter”; in diffeomorphic deformation this parameter changes. For
nondiffeomorphic deformations, the gauge connection is changing.
Therefore:
The set is the set of all possible simplex topologies, i.e. the set of all identified simplex nodes. Physical action does not change under diffeomorphic deformations (including Lorentz transformations) and hence, the integral over for each is constant. The integration over all gauge connections makes only sense for . All contributions with can be neglected; only physical states are taken into account, while the number of unphysical states is vanishing small. Hence, the FaddeevPopov factor in the path integral factorizes in the path integral and can be omitted. One is left with the following path integral:
The path integral (8) is the path integral of Egravity theory if the field strength term corresponds to the EinsteinHilbert action in vacuum. It holds for a 1form gauge connection and a 2form field strength tensor for . Using theorem of Stokes over a 2dimensional area , one obtains . If is sufficiently small, i.e. ( denotes the measure of a set), one can define the field strength corresponding to the area :
From (9) it follows that if and the path
integration is not performed around a singularity, it holds . This is the case
if there are no identified simplex nodes in a simplex element. Every node which is
identified with another node causes a nonvanishing value of due to the change of
spacetime structure by making topological "shortcuts" in it. The statement with coboundary map
, Esemigroup
elements and indicator
function (that is 1 if there
are no identified simplex nodes and 0 otherwise) where the are pairwise different is proven. If there are 2 or more identified
simplex nodes (these induce singularities), one can choose closed paths in
arbitrary spacetime directions such that all 3 or more singularities are
contained in the path. Since is small, one has everywhere on and in this case .
It has to be shown that if exactly one simplex node is identified with , it holds if is even and is odd or is even and is odd, if and are odd and if and are even; the value
is a specific
gravitational constant. At first, the following decomposition of the gauge
field action (which is known from electromagnetic theory) can be performed:
The indices are running from 1 to 3 (all space directions). The term is the “gravitoelectric” field strength and the term is the “gravitomagnetic” field strength. By Lorentz transformations, the time direction can be replaced by a direction pointing anywhere in spacetime, where all other indices denote all other directions perpendicular to the direction with index 0; action functional does not change after any Lorentz transformation.
Simplex elements have to be oriented properly while discretizing spacetime. Nondiffeomorphic deformations have singular values of the connection across the 0direction, if the simplex node generators or are identified with another simplex node (by convention of the coboundary map, all nodes with odd index are negatively oriented), and have singular values of the connection perpendicular to this 0direction, if all other simplex node generators and are identified with another simplex node (by convention of the coboundary map, all nodes with even index are positively oriented). Every singularity has the same magnitude of the value given by . This assumption relies on the choice of infinite hypercomplex numbers with ordinary finite complex numbers for the gauge connection field; indeed, it holds by nonstandard analysis. If is even and is odd or is even and is odd, the path integration passing through 0direction encounters one singularity and the path integration passing through directions only perpendicular to 0direction encounters also one singularity; hence and .
If and are odd, the path integration in arbitrary 0direction encounters two singularities of with equal magnitude, while path integration in directions perpendicular to the 0direction have no singularities; hence: , and with a constant . Finally, if and are even, the path integration in directions perpendicular to 0direction encounters two singularities of with equal magnitude, while path integration in directions in 0direction have no singularities; hence: , and with a constant . The values of are also infinite values, but with renormalization of the YangMills coupling constant this infinity can be removed.
Discussion
In four spacetime dimensions, the Ricci scalar defined by (averaged over a
volume) can be also recovered by a YangMills theory. Some idealizations like
the equal values of a topological singularity are assumed, which might lead to
small inaccuracies if the field strength is computed by more advanced concepts
(not treated in this research paper). The equivalence between YangMills theory
and discretized EinsteinHilbert action with curvature measure is only valid for
3+1dimensional spacetime (one direction generated by 2 simplex nodes makes the
pure “electric” field strength and all three other directions generated by all
other 3 simplex nodes make the pure “magnetic” field strength). Extra
dimensions can play a role if Egravity theory is embed in a certain plausible
framework of superstring theory or Mtheory. However, there is still not found
a way to do this. However, there is evidence that the Standard model of
particle physics with gravity is recovered if superstring theories are compactified
on the CalabiYau manifolds (Candelas et al. 1985). Getting the Standard model
combined with Egravity theory from superstring theory or Mtheory by suitable
compactification is still not clear even since the gauge group has different
structure compared with gauge groups that impose all other fundamental
interactions.
Inhomogenity in spacetime, which is also a
feature of Egravity theory, is caused exactly by the field which is
nonvanishing between the simplex elements, where physical states can occur.
This gauge connection separates simplex elements which are different. Egravity
theory in terms of a YangMills theory would conserve energy, momentum and
spinangular momentum, but if the 1form field is “cut out”,
energy and momentum has to be created and annihilated to include effects
performed by the gauge connection.
Gravitational interactions are able to materialize multiple particles. From the
YangMills theory, gravity couples on the currents (here, the fermionic case
with fermion fields and coupling
constant )
where is the generator of diffeomorphic deformations. It is a convolution operator and from (11) it holds that gravity is induced by correlations of particles in the entire spacetime. A simple example is the correlation of an apple that correlates with the earth; the apple falls towards earth because gravity is triggered by the appleearth correlation. In systems where quantum entanglement can occur, physical states can correlate; therefore gravity is also produced in entangled systems. Assuming that the generators of the simplex modification are acting only on a small, bounded region, the correlation current (11) involves only correlations of states that are very close to each other. Moreover, due to the very small support of these generators, one can assume that the commutators of these are neglectible; an abelian gauge theory arises. Therefore, gravity has an “electromagnetic” character and the force is transmitted with speed of light.
The fact that entangled states produce gravitational energy can be understood as follows: If two particles are interacting with each other, the structure of quantum uncertainty between these particles is modified by gravity. Two different independent random motions that are interacting with each other, will combine to one correlated random motion. But such a process would lead to decreasing entropy . Gravity that is caused by correlation avoids a violation of the second law of Thermodynamics, it increases entropy by and therefore, the energy that is produced by gravity has to be of order for a given temperature . Energy has to be bounded by Planck energy which implies that the entropy change due to gravitational interaction has to be finite.
Quantum Gravity theories are still not proven by experiments. Some other research was performed to discuss effects predicted by quantum gravity (Takeuchi et al. 2016). However, experiments for effective gravity theories (e.g. General Relativity) were performed. A recent experimental verification of General Relativity (Abbott 2016) is the detection of gravitational waves from binary Black Holes. In terms of Egravity theory, two Black Holes are correlating with each other and therefore these would induce a gravitational current given by (11). By using the YangMills form of Egravity theory one would obtain equations similar to Maxwell’s equations to electromagnetism with a correlation current instead of a electric current. The fields of the gauge connection have large values on small length and time scales. If the action of Egravity theory is treated as a meanfield theory for large length and time scales, General Relativity can be recovered; moreover, since the regions of spacetime where large values of the nonvanishing gauge connection occur are very little, one can treat these gauge connections also as small values on large length and time scales. This implies that Egravity theory predicts also waves induced by gravitational correlations. The largest amplitudes of gravitational waves occurring when the two Black Holes are collided; the Black Holes have the largest correlation in this case.
Another experimental result, where predictions of Egravity theory agree, is the entropy of a Black Hole. Black Hole entropy computed with Egravity theory is proportional to the event horizon area of the Black Hole (Linker 2016).
Gravity is a very weak force in comparison with all other fundamental forces of nature. In Egravity theories the value of the curvature measure vanishes at the most of the possible simplex configurations; making gravitational effects nearly irrelevant for particle scattering at low energies and low particle densities. Therefore, Egravity provides an explaination of the weakness of gravity in comparison with all other fundamental forces.
Conclusions
An interesting correspondence between YangMills theory and General Relativity is shown in this research paper. YangMills theory with another version of the Poincaré group, called with special assumptions about simplex topology turns out to coincide with the EinsteinHilbert action that uses a generalized curvature measure based on chain complexes of simplices. Formulating fundamental interactions in terms of YangMills theory makes it easier to find unified descriptions of fundamental forces. Indeed, the gauge group of Standard model of particle physics combined with Egravity theory can be regarded as the gauge group that looks like a unified description of fundamental forces. Unfortunately, a plausible Grand Unified Theory is still not found; only experimentally unverified models are proposed. However, Egravity theory also applies to effects, where not all other fundamental forces are unified.
References
Ashtekar,A. 1985. “New variables for classical and quantum gravity.” Physical Review Letters 57(18): 2244. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.57.2244.
Bern, Z. et al. 1998. “On the relationship between YangMills theory and gravity and its implication for ultraviolet divergences.” Nuclear Physics B 530(1): 401–56. doi:10.1016/S05503213(98)004209.
Hsu, J.P. 2006. “ YANG–MILLS GRAVITY IN FLAT SPACE–TIME I: CLASSICAL GRAVITY WITH TRANSLATION GAUGE SYMMETRY.” International Journal of Modern Physics A 21(25): 5119–39. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0217751X06034082.
Linker, P. 2016. “Egravity theory.” The Winnower 3: e145441.18359. doi:10.15200/winn.145441.18359.
Sopuerta, Carlos F. et al. 2005. “A toy model for testing finite element methods to simulate extrememassratio binary systems.” Classical and Quantum Gravity 23(1): 251. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/02649381/23/1/013.
B. P. Abbott et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) 2016. "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Physical Review Letters 116 (6). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102.
Candelas, P. et al. 1985: “Vacuum configurations for superstrings.” Nuclear Physics B. 258: 46–74, doi: 10.1016/05503213(85)906029.
Linker, P. 2016. “Black Hole Entropy and dynamics of quantum fluctuations predicted by Egravity theory.” The Winnower 3:e145934.43470. doi: 10.15200/winn.145934.43470.
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Reviews
Showing 7 Reviews

1
Attempts to describe properties of a theory due to the author that does not seem to have any real connection to known physics or measurable effects. It is my opinion that this would be dismissed by most journal editors without even being sent to a reviewer.

1
Well I find it very interesting Patrick but here is my question and that is Did extra dimensions have any role to play ? Thanks :)

1
Is your theory agree with expermental results ?

Thanks for the review! I have updated and improved the paper (fixed also an error).


0
It is an interesting and inspiring article about the topic and it is clearing the view onto the methodology of Quantum Gravity in its here discussed form.
The mechanism between quantum correlation, i.e. entanglement, and gravitation should be extended to a more physically based understanding and not only derived from the mathematical framework.
The way how the access energy out of correlation between particles converts into gravity should be in the future appended under consideration of Planck Energy. A treatment of the entropy argument for the in this article proposed view is recommended.
Equation (11) claims to express a particle correlation over the hole space time. May be it should be combined with some considerations how quantum correlations over such large distances can be established especially under consideration of the time necessary to propagate through the universe.
From EPR experiments we know about the instantaneous propagation of influence on super positioned systems. So it could be interesting to make some propositions about the propagation velocity of the this way described gravity effects. Recent measurement of gravitational waves in coincidence with synchronized data from embased telescopes are indicating that gravitational waves are traveling at the speed of light. So it is worth to show how the instantaneous propagated dynamics of the change in superpositioned systems is to be in accordance with gravity on the speed of c.
Very good review!
Added some things in the paper (see "Discussion" section).


0
Is your theory agree with experimental data ?

I have added a reference where agreement of Egravity theory with experimental data occurs (Black Hole entropy).


0
Technically good,but i don't understand its proper physical meaning, can you explain me ?

I have added some clarification to the gauge group MP(1,3).


1
Promising approach with the derivative Yang Mills and Superstring correspondence, looking forward more development of this project Partick, you might be interested to look into the Z2 gauge,lattice theories and modularquasi modular gravity.
License
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I have updated the paper now. Egravity from its original point of view has nothing to do with extra dimensions, but some string theorists can try to find a theory, where the compactification of it leads to Standard model with Egravity theory.
If string theory is to be relevant at all for physics,it is because it provides evidence for the existence of a more fundamental theory.
Extra dimensions role not needed for this concept.